over 4 years ago

http://www.thenewslens.com/post/30822/

服貿協議生效後,你我鄰居組成或有大改變

陳仁豪

海峽兩岸服務貿易協議(以下簡稱「服貿協議」)相關議題最近鬧得沸沸揚揚,除了贊成及反對兩方對內容的看法不同,針對立法院審查程序是否存在瑕疵也有爭議。

於內容上,服貿協議的贊成者多是從「台灣不能自絕於國際社會」、「競爭才會進步」、「會帶來商機」;而反對者多是從「部分弱勢產業可能被消滅」、「涉及國家安全產業不能開放」、「可能傷害到言論自由」等等角度來論述。

這類爭議很正常,每個人的生活背景、價值觀不同,在社會體系中所處的相對位置也不一樣,由於已有相當多的討論,所以本文將不再涉及。不過,筆者認為要討論之前還是請論者把服貿協議好好地讀過一次,而且不是只看完那24條本文(這類條文在類似的協議幾乎都千篇一律)就好,而是也要仔細閱讀附件的特定承諾表以及關於服務提供者的具體規定

服貿協議中有部分條文牽涉到對岸人士在台居留的問題,由於相關論述較少,筆者對這議題也相對有興趣,所以本文將著重於討論此點。

根據服貿協議中電腦及其相關服務業的市場開放承諾(4)ii(其他開放的服務業基本比照辦理),跨國企業內部調動人員進入臺灣初次停留期間為三年,惟可申請展延,每次不得逾三年,且展延次數無限制。(跨國企業內部調動人員係指被其他世界貿易組織會員的法人僱用滿一年,透過在臺灣設立的分公司、子公司或分支機構,以負責人、高級經理人員或專家身分,短期進入臺灣以提供服務的自然人。)

此規範看起來類似於筆者有些熟悉的美國L1簽證的「介紹」, 美國L1是跨國公司把高層管理人員和核心技術人員調派到美國工作的簽證類別。創設目的主要是為了讓跨國企業到美國做生意,擴大投資、刺激美國經濟、增加就業。規定申請人在申請前往美國前三年,必須在美國以外的跨國公司「連續受聘」(和聘滿解釋上不同,聘滿比較寬鬆)至少一年。

美國L1簽證的規定,「看起來」和服貿協議中的承諾有些類似,但在實際的運作上美國L1簽證並不容易取得。

首先,美國L1簽證在申請時,必須繳交非常繁雜的文件(註),如果是在美國新設立的公司,必須繳交一份商業計畫,而跨國公司指派到美國新設立的公司的L1簽證申請人,通常只會拿到「一年效期」的L1簽證,後續的延展必須視商業計畫的執行情形,例如雇用美國當地幾名員工等等而定。

而如果是美國的公司已設立一定時間,於申請L1簽證時,則必須要出具銀行每月的往來明細、合約、發票等等,證明確實有在進行商業活動,促進當地的經濟發展以及就業率。

另外,在跨國公司母公司的規模上,由於中國大陸出具的文件造假者甚多,對於中國大陸母公司的規模,在實際審查上採取嚴格的標準,有認為至少要1、公司成立3年以上;2、註冊資本高於300萬人民幣;3、年營業額不少於800萬人民幣;4、員工人員不少於30人等等。

上述這些美國L1簽證核發時的要求,在服貿協議中付之闕如,當然有論者會表示,服貿協議只是進行原則性的規定,將來會另制定詳細辦法。但將來制定的辦法有可能牴觸服貿協議的文意嗎?更況,按法規範的位階來判斷,即使牴觸者也會無效。

在開放陸資投資台灣後,目前關於陸資人員進出是參照外國人投資的相關規定,並依據「大陸地區專業人士來臺從事專業活動許可辦法」「大陸地區專業人士來臺從事專業活動邀請單位及應備具之申請文件表」,以投資金額及營業額核定來台人數以及後續管理:1、陸資投資事業其投資金額達20萬美元以上,可申請2人來台進行經營管理,投資金額每增加50萬美元,得申請增加1人,最多不能超過7人;2、前項主管或技術人員申請來台,原則上第1年只會核發1年效期多次入出境許可證,第2年起,公司營業額須達到新台幣1千萬元始得重新申請換證;3、符合一定要件的人員,可以申請配偶及子女來台等等。

問題是,服貿協議生效後還可能比照現行規定嗎?從服貿協議上開放承諾的文字來看,顯然是不可能。但經濟部投資審議委員會(以下簡稱「投審會」)在反駁質疑服貿協議的說帖中竟然拿出來說嘴,真不知這些人的腦袋是裝什麼?

筆者並非全然反對對岸高階管理人或是白領技術人員來台,但如照服貿協議開放承諾的字義去執行,恐怕將弊病叢生。

尤其,雖然外資或陸資來台進行投資,都必須要經過投審會核准,而投審會於審定投資核准函中均會載明「本案核定之股本投資額應列入投資事業公司帳戶內,不得移作他用。」但實際上,公司設立後將股本移作他用的情形並不罕見,更有不少是借錢來充作股本,於進行驗資後即返還的情形。可以想見,將來一定會有不少對岸人士借錢在台灣設立公司,付點利息就能全家老小在台灣至少住三年,享受便宜的健保,真是小投資有大收益啊。

綜上說明,筆者強烈反對目前服貿協議中市場開放承諾(4)ii的文字,就此部分應該要重啟談判,至少對岸經貿人士居留必須和在台子公司或分公司營業額及聘僱台灣勞工的情形掛勾,並且不應該一開始就直接可以停留三年,以免給予心懷不軌人士有上下其手的空間。至於那些說服貿協議一字不能改、以為大家都是笨蛋的說詞就免了吧,隨便舉個例子就能打臉,韓國與美國的自由貿易協定也是曾重啟談判,經歷6年多才生效。

註: 以下為美國移民律師所提供,有關國外母公司應準備的文件清單

  1. Copy of Certificate of Incorporation

  2. Copy of business license, if applicable

  3. Proof of the existence and viability of the business to include:

a. Advertising material and brochures

b. Certified copy of lease of premises or title deed to fixed property

  1. Latest financial statements (Balance Sheets, Statements of Income and Expenses, etc.) showing the foreign entity’s financial position

c. Business bank statements for the last twelve (12) months

d. Invoices to customers and from suppliers and/or contracts showing ongoing trading

  1. Pictures of products, premises, staff and equipment (in duplicate), where applicable

  2. Submit a list of all employees including names and job titles for the past three years, beginning date and ending date of employment

  3. Certified copies of the Internal Tax Return or relevant tax return.

  4. Copies of the company’s Payroll Summary evidencing wages paid to employees.

  5. Submit copies of the business entity telephone records for the past six (6) months

  6. Copies of export and shipping documents (if applicable)

  7. Letter on business stationery certifying:

1.Brief description of the business including nature of business, number of employees and gross annual income

a. Name of employee

b. Title of employee

c. Date of commencement of employment

d. Duties of employee (must be executive or managerial in nature, or he/she must have specialized knowledge of company’s systems or technology).

e. That the employee has been continuously employed since date of employment with explanation as to any interruptions in employment.

f. Why the beneficiary was selected for the position within the US entity.

g. List education and employment qualifications for the position in the U.S. company.

h. Additionally, explain how the parent company will continue to function with the absence of this individual for an extended period.

i. Please confirm that the business supports a petition for an L-1A visa for the employee and that his position with the business will be available to him at the end of his tour of duty.

j. Copies of payrolls pertaining to the beneficiary for the past one year to the present

  1. Submit the business plan that was prepared by the foreign company for the US entity. The plan should include SPECIFIC details as to the business to be conducted, and one, three and five year projections for business expenses, sales, gross income and profits or losses (if applicable).

  2. Evidence of proposed purchase of US Business Entity (if applicable) may include wire transfers, canceled checks, deposit receipts, etc., detailing monetary amounts for the stock purchase. Provide the account holder names and affiliation to the foreign entity for all persons making purchases and the bank accounts that were used. These must clearly indicate verifiable originators of the amounts deposited or wired

  3. Copies of Stock Certificates or separate letter from auditors or appropriate government office certifying the issued and authorized share structure of the Foreign Business Entity, the names of the existing shareholders and the numbers of shares held by each of such shareholders. (The total number of shares held by shareholders must correspond with the total issued shares of the company)

  4. If the foreign or U.S. entities are publicly traded companies, please provide the annual report indicating the relationship between the two entities. [Employer abroad and employer in the US].

  5. Corporate Organizational Chart showing relationship with proposed US Business Entity.

  6. Organizational Chart for Foreign Business Entity describing managerial hierarchy and beneficiary’s position within the hierarchy and staffing levels. This is best accomplished by indicating:

a. The current names of executive(s), manager(s), supervisor(s),the beneficiary’s position in the chart;

b. The names of other existing employees within each department or subdivision;

c. Clearly indicate all existing employees under the beneficiary’s supervision.

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